Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide best known for its role in emotional and social behaviors, has been linked to osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to investigate the serum OT level in hip and/or knee OA patients and to study its association with disease progression. Patients from the KHOALA cohort with symptomatic hip and/or knee OA (Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) scores of 2 and 3) and follow-up at 5 years were included in this analysis. The primary endpoint was structural radiological progression, which was defined as an increase of at least one KL point at 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between OT levels and KL progression while controlling for gender, age, BMI, diabetes and leptin levels. Data from 174 hip OA patients and 332 knee OA patients were analyzed independently. No differences in OT levels were found between the 'progressors' and 'non-progressors' groups among the hip OA patients and knee OA patients, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between the OT levels at baseline and KL progression at 5 years, the KL score at baseline or the clinical outcomes. Higher structural damage at baseline and severe structural progression of hip and knee osteoarthritis did not appear to be associated with a low serum OT level at baseline.