Obesity is a major public health concern at the origin of many pathologies, including cancers. Among them, the incidence of gastro-intestinal tract cancers is significantly increased, as well as the one of hormone-dependent cancers. The metabolic changes caused by overweight mainly with the development of adipose tissue (AT), insulin resistance and chronic inflammation induce hormonal and/or growth factor imbalances, which impact cell proliferation and differentiation. AT is now considered as the main internal source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) representing a low level systemic chronic exposure. Some EDCs are non-metabolizable and can accumulate in AT for a long time. We are chronically exposed to low doses of EDCs able to interfere with the endocrine metabolism of the body. Importantly, several EDCs have been involved in the genesis of obesity affecting profoundly the physiology of AT. In parallel, EDCs have been implicated in the development of cancers, in particular hormone-dependent cancers (prostate, testis, breast, endometrium, thyroid). While it is now well established that AT secretes adipocytokines that promote tumor progression, it is less clear whether they can initiate cancer. Therefore, it is important to better understand the effects of EDCs, and to investigate the buffering effect of AT in the context of progression but also initiation of cancer cells using adequate models recommended to uncover and validate these mechanisms for humans. We will review and argument here the potential role of AT as a crosstalk between EDCs and hormone-dependent cancer development, and how to assess it.