Duplex ultrasound (DUS) is an essential tool for characterizing and monitoring arteriovenous (AV) access for hemodialysis. The aim of the work described here, requested by the French Society of Vascular Medicine in collaboration with the French-Speaking Vascular Access Society, is to propose a standardized methodology for performing and documenting DUS, taking into account the variety of AV access techniques and the problems routinely encountered. A steering committee reviewed the literature and selected the relevant references. A draft was prepared, and all items with missing or conflicting data were submitted to a Delphi consensus. The final document was discussed and approved by all participants. The principles of DUS evaluation of AV access consist of examination of the afferent artery, the anastomosis and the entire venous drainage system. DUS uses B-mode ultrasound, color flow, pulsed wave and power Doppler analysis. DUS can be used in a variety of clinical situations, which can directly influence the methodology of the examination and the interpretation of the results. Blood flow should be assessed as it correlates with the risk of thrombosis. The measurement should be adapted to the different anatomical and hemodynamic conditions encountered. Characterization of stenosis should take into account the residual diameter of the drainage vein and its hemodynamic consequences. Other complications can be assessed with a standardized DUS examination. When performed according to a rigorous methodology, DUS of the AV access allows a comprehensive assessment of its functionality and eliminates the need for further invasive diagnostic procedures.