A vast body of studies is available that describes age-dependent gene expression in relationship to aging in a number of different model species. These data were obtained from animals kept in conditions with reduced environmental challenges, abundant food and deprivation of natural sensory stimulation. Here we compared wild- and captive-aging in the short-lived turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri). These fish inhabit temporary ponds in the African savannah. When the ponds are flooded, eggs hatch synchronously, enabling a precise timing of their individual and population age. We collected brains of wild fish of different ages and quantified the global age-dependent regulation of transcripts using RNA-seq. A major difference between captive and wild population is that wild population had unlimited access to food, and hence grew to larger sizes and reached asymptotic size more rapidly, enabling the analysis of age-dependent gene expression without the confounding effect of adult brain growth. We found that the majority of differentially-expressed genes show the same direction of regulation in wild and captive population. However, a number of genes were regulated in opposite direction. Genes down-regulated in the wild and up-regulated in captivity were enriched for terms related to neuronal communication. Genes up-regulated in the wild and down-regulated in captive conditions were enriched in terms related to DNA replication. Finally, the rate of age-dependent gene regulation was higher in the wild animals suggesting a phenomenon of accelerated aging.