Orbital exenteration is a radical and disfiguring surgery mainly performed in specialized tertiary care centers. Orbital exenteration has long been considered the treatment of choice for managing periocular tumors invading the orbit or primary orbital malignancies. Over the past decades, attention has been directed toward reducing the perioperative morbidity by developing new surgical devices and new strategies and promoting cosmetic rehabilitation by providing adequate facial prostheses. Despite these advances, several studies have questioned the role of orbital exenteration in improving overall survival. The last decade has been marked by the emergence of a new paradigm: the "eye-sparing" strategies based on conservative surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy and/or targeted therapies and immunotherapies. We summarize the data on orbital exenteration, including epidemiology, etiologies, use of surgical ablative and reconstructive techniques, complications, outcomes, and the related controversies.