Defects in apoptosis mechanisms play important roles in malignancy and autoimmunity. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77/TR3 has been demonstrated to bind antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and convert it from a cytoprotective to a cytodestructive protein, representing a phenotypic conversion mechanism. Of the 6 antiapoptotic human Bcl-2 family members, we found that Nur77/TR3 binds strongest to Bcl-B, showing selective reactivity with Bcl-B, Bcl-2, and Bfl-1 but not Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, or Bcl-W. Nur77 converts the phenotype of Bcl-B from antiapoptotic to proapoptotic. Bcl-B is prominently expressed in plasma cells and multiple myeloma. Endogenous Bcl-B associates with endogenous Nur77 in RPMI 8226 myeloma cells, where RNA interference experiments demonstrated dependence on Bcl-B for Nur77-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, a Nur77-mimicking peptide killed RPMI 8226 myeloma cells through a Bcl-B-dependent mechanism. Because Bcl-B is abundantly expressed in plasma cells and some myelomas, these findings raise the possibility of exploiting the Nur77/Bcl-B mechanism for apoptosis for eradication of autoimmune plasma cells or myeloma.