Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO), or pachydermoperiostosis, is characterized by a clinical association including digital clubbing, periostosis and pachydermia. SLCO2A1 and HPGD genes are both responsible for PHO. The pathology is classically defined as an autosomal recessive disorder with clinical variability ranging from a mild to more severe phenotype. However, the hypothesis for an autosomal dominant form suggested for a long time was only demonstrated for the first time in 2021 for SLCO2A1. We aimed to detect a second pathogenic variant by a deep sequencing of the entire SLCO2A1 and HPGD genes, associated with functional transcription analysis in PHO patients harboring only one heterozygous variant. Among 10 PHO patients, 4 presented a single pathogenic or probably pathogenic novel variant in SLCO2A1 in heterozygous status (NM_005630.3: c.234+1G > A, c.1523_1524delCT, c.1625G > A and c.31delC), and the others carried homozygous pathogenic variants. For heterozygous forms, we found no additional pathogenic variant in HPGD or SLCO2A1. PHO can be a dominant form with age at disease onset later than that for the recessive form. This dominant form is not exceptional in young adults. In conclusion, both modes of inheritance of PHO explain the clinical variability and the difference in age at disease onset. Molecular analysis is especially required in the incomplete form to distinguish it from secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.