In adult mammals, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) and are maintained in a quiescent and undifferentiated state through adhesive interactions with specialized microenvironmental niches. Although junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) is expressed by HSCs, its function in adult hematopoiesis remains elusive. Here, we show that HSCs adhere to JAM-B expressed by BM stromal cells in a JAM-C dependent manner. The interaction regulates the interplay between HSCs and BM stromal cells as illustrated by the decreased pool of quiescent HSCs observed in jam-b deficient mice. We further show that this is probably because of alterations of BM stromal compartments and changes in SDF-1α BM content in jam-b(-/-) mice, suggesting that JAM-B is an active player in the maintenance of the BM stromal microenvironment.