The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), an outer mitochondria membrane (OMM) protein, serves as a mitochondrial gatekeeper, mediating the transport of nucleotides, Ca and other metabolites across the OMM. VDAC1 also plays a central role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by facilitating the release of apoptotic proteins and by association with both pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Tumor cells, which are constantly exposed to hypoxic conditions, affect the cell via the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) that induces transcriptional activity. In cultured cells and in lung cancer patients, hypoxia induces VDAC1 truncation at the C-terminus (VDAC1-ΔC). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in VDAC1-ΔC formation are unknown. Here, we show that hypoxia-induced VDAC1-ΔC formation is inhibited by the Ca chelator BAPTA-AM, by calpain inhibitor-1, by inhibitor of the asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) and by si-RNA targeting HIF1-α or Ca-activated protease calpain-1 expression but not that of calpain-2. Finally, VDAC1-ΔC expressed in bacteria and reconstituted into a planar lipid bilayer exhibited decreased channel conductance relative to the full-length protein, yet retained voltage-dependent conductance. These findings suggest that hypoxia, acting via HIF-1α expression, leads to VDAC1 cleavage involving the activation of calpain 1 and AEP.