Patients with end-stage renal failure need arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) to undergo dialysis. However, AVFs present a high rate of failure as a result of excessive venous thickness. Excessive venous thickness may be a consequence of surgical dissection and change in oxygen concentration within the venous wall. We show that venous cells adapt their metabolism and growth depending on oxygen concentration, and drugs targeting the hypoxic response pathway modulate this response in vitro. We used the same drugs on a mouse model of AVF and show that direct or indirect inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) help decrease excessive venous thickness. Hypoxia and HIFs can be targets of therapeutic drugs to prevent excessive venous thickness in patients undergoing AVF surgical creation.