In this review, we will specifically address the newest insights on the effect of low doses of ionizing radiations on the hematopoietic stem cells, which are prone to long-term deleterious effects. Impact of high doses of irradiation on hematopoietic cells has been widely studied over the years, in line with the risk of accidental or terrorist exposure to irradiation and with a particular attention to the sensitivity of the hematopoietic system. Recently, more studies have focused on lower doses of irradiation on different tissues, due to the increasing exposure caused by medical imaging, radiotherapy or plane travelling for instance. Hence, we will delineate similarities and discrepancies in HSC response to high and low doses of irradiation from these studies.