Diet composition impacts metabolic health and is now recognized to shape the immune system, especially in the intestinal tract. Nutritional imbalance and increased caloric intake are induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in which lipids are enriched at the expense of dietary fibers. Such nutritional challenge alters glucose homeostasis as well as intestinal immunity. Here, we observed that short-term HFD induced dysbiosis, glucose intolerance and decreased intestinal RORγt CD4 T cells, including peripherally-induced Tregs and IL17-producing (Th17) T cells. However, supplementation of HFD-fed male mice with the fermentable dietary fiber fructooligosaccharides (FOS) was sufficient to maintain RORγt CD4 T cell subsets and microbial species known to induce them, alongside having a beneficial impact on glucose tolerance. FOS-mediated normalization of Th17 cells and amelioration of glucose handling required the cDC2 dendritic cell subset in HFD-fed animals, while IL-17 neutralization limited FOS impact on glucose tolerance. Overall, we uncover a pivotal role of cDC2 in the control of the immune and metabolic effects of FOS in the context of HFD feeding.