Changes in lymphocyte production patterns occurring across human ontogeny remain poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that human lymphopoiesis is supported by three waves of embryonic, fetal, and postnatal multi-lymphoid progenitors (MLPs) differing in CD7 and CD10 expression and their output of CD127 early lymphoid progenitors (ELPs). In addition, our results reveal that, like the fetal-to-adult switch in erythropoiesis, transition to postnatal life coincides with a shift from multilineage to B lineage-biased lymphopoiesis and an increase in production of CD127 ELPs, which persists until puberty. A further developmental transition is observed in elderly individuals whereby B cell differentiation bypasses the CD127 compartment and branches directly from CD10 MLPs. Functional analyses indicate that these changes are determined at the level of hematopoietic stem cells. These findings provide insights for understanding identity and function of human MLPs and the establishment and maintenance of adaptative immunity.