Lineage dedifferentiation toward a mesenchymal-like state displaying myofibroblast and fibrotic features is a common mechanism of adaptive and acquired resistance to targeted therapy in melanoma. Here, we show that the anti-fibrotic drug nintedanib is active to normalize the fibrous ECM network, enhance the efficacy of MAPK-targeted therapy, and delay tumor relapse in a preclinical model of melanoma. Acquisition of this resistant phenotype and its reversion by nintedanib pointed to miR-143/-145 pro-fibrotic cluster as a driver of this mesenchymal-like phenotype. Upregulation of the miR-143/-145 cluster under BRAFi/MAPKi therapy was observed in melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo and was associated with an invasive/undifferentiated profile. The 2 mature miRNAs generated from this cluster, miR-143-3p and miR-145-5p, collaborated to mediate transition toward a drug-resistant undifferentiated mesenchymal-like state by targeting Fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1), modulating the dynamic crosstalk between the actin cytoskeleton and the ECM through the regulation of focal adhesion dynamics and mechanotransduction pathways. Our study brings insights into a novel miRNA-mediated regulatory network that contributes to non-genetic adaptive drug resistance and provides proof of principle that preventing MAPKi-induced pro-fibrotic stromal response is a viable therapeutic opportunity for patients on targeted therapy.