Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids in the vessel wall, leading to the formation of an atheroma and eventually to the development of vascular calcification (VC). Lipoproteins play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and VC. Both low- and very low-density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) stimulate, while high-density lipoproteins (HDL) reduce VC. Apolipoproteins, the protein component of lipoproteins, influence the development of VC in multiple ways. Apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), the main protein component of HDL, has anti-calcific properties, while apoB and apoCIII, the main protein components of LDL and VLDL, respectively, promote VC. The role of lipoproteins in VC is also related to their metabolism and modifications. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) are more pro-calcific than native LDL. Oxidation also converts HDL from anti- to pro-calcific. Additionally, enzymes such as autotaxin (ATX) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), involved in lipoprotein metabolism, have a stimulatory role in VC. In summary, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which lipoproteins and apolipoproteins contribute to VC will be crucial in the development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for VC and its associated cardiovascular disease.