The implication of αβ and γδ T cells in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) remains uncertain. Mice lacking γδ T cells show either no difference or a decrease in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced IR, whereas partial depletion in γδ T cells does not protect from HFD-induced IR. αβ T-cell deficiency leads to a decrease in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation and IR without weight change, but partial depletion of these cells has not been studied. We previously described a mouse model overexpressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPAR-β) specifically in T cells [transgenic (Tg) T-PPAR-β] that exhibits a partial depletion in αβ T cells and no change in γδ T-cell number. This results in a decreased αβ/γδ T-cell ratio in lymphoid organs. We now show that Tg T-PPAR-β mice are partially protected against HFD-induced weight gain and exhibit decreased IR and liver steatosis independently of animal weight. These mice display an alteration of WAT-depots distribution with an increased epididymal-WAT mass and a decreased subcutaneous WAT mass. Immune cell number is decreased in both WAT-depots, except for γδ T cells, which are increased in epididymal-WAT. Overall, we show that decreasing αβ/γδ T-cell ratio in WAT-depots alters their inflammatory state and mass repartition, which might be involved in improvement of insulin sensitivity.-Le Menn, G., Sibille, B., Murdaca, J., Rousseau, A.-S., Squillace, R., Vergoni, B., Cormont, M., Niot, I., Grimaldi, P. A., Mothe-Satney, I., Neels, J. G. Decrease in αβ/γδ T-cell ratio is accompanied by a reduction in high-fat diet-induced weight gain, insulin resistance, and inflammation.