Despite cefoxitin's in vitro resistance to hydrolysis by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), treatment of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) infections with cefoxitin remains controversial. The aim of our study was to compare the clinical efficacy of cefoxitin as definitive antibiotic therapy for patients with ESBL-KP bacteremia in intensive care unit, versus carbapenem therapy.