The close structural analogy of bisphenol (BP) S with BPA, a recognized endocrine-disrupting chemical and a substance of very high concern in the European Union, highlights the need to assess the extent of similarities between the two compounds and carefully scrutinize BPS potential toxicity for human health. This analysis aimed to investigate human health toxicity data regarding BPS, to find a point of departure for the derivation of human guidance values. A systematic and transparent methodology was applied to determine whether European or international reference values have been established for BPS. In the absence of such values, the scientific literature on human health effects was evaluated by focusing on human epidemiological and animal experimental studies. The results were analyzed by target organ/system: male and female reproduction, mammary gland, neurobehavior, and metabolism/obesity. Academic experimental studies were analyzed and compared to regulatory data including subchronic studies and an extended one-generation and reproduction study. In contrast to the regulatory studies, which were performed at dose levels in the mg/kg bw/day range, the academic dataset on specific target organs or systems showed adverse effects for BPS at much lower doses (0.5-10 μg/kg bw/day). A large disparity between the lowest-observed-adverse-effect levels (LOAELs) derived from regulatory and academic studies was observed for BPS, as for BPA. Toxicokinetic data on BPS from animal and human studies were also analyzed and showed a 100-fold higher oral bioavailability compared to BPA in a pig model. The similarities and differences between the two bisphenols, in particular the higher bioavailability of BPS in its active (non-conjugated) form and its potential impact on human health, are discussed. Based on the available experimental data, and for a better human protection, we propose to derive human reference values for exposure to BPS from the N(L)OAELs determined in academic studies.