The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved into a severe psychosocial crisis affecting patients, their relatives, friends, and healthcare professionals. In Italy, public health residents (PHRs) remain essential to the national response to the pandemic. To assess their mental sphere, the "Public Mental Health" working group of the medical residents' Assembly of the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine has designed the Public Health Residents' Anonymous Survey in Italy (PHRASI). This is a nation-wide cross-sectional study based on an 88-item self-administered voluntary survey that evaluates how sociodemographic variables are associated with mental issues, including wellness, eating disorders, sleeplessness, alcohol misuse, depression, and anxiety. Data will be gathered by disseminating a Google Forms link across the Assembly network of medical residents. All PHRs enrolled in a four-year program in one of the Italian postgraduate schools of public health will be qualified as participants. PHRASI aims to draw a comprehensive and detailed picture of the mental health state of Italian PHRs. PHRs are a significant group of healthcare professionals that may serve as a future benchmark for developing and enacting regulations intended to support the mental health of healthcare professionals.