Sustained response off-treatment (SROT) after thrombopoietin receptor agonist (TPO-RA) discontinuation has been reported in ITP. This prospective multicenter interventional study enrolled adults with persistent or chronic primary ITP and complete response on TPO-RAs. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving SROT (platelet count > 30x109/L and no bleeding) at W24 with no other ITP-specific medications. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of sustained complete response off-treatment (SCROT, platelet count > 100x109/L and no bleeding) and SROT at W52, bleeding events, and pattern of response to a new course of TPO-RAs. We included 48 patients with median (IQR) age 58.5 years (41-73.5); 30/48 (63%) had chronic ITP at TPO-RA initiation. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 27/48 (56.2%, 95% CI, 41.2-70.5) achieved SROT; 15/48 (31.3%; 95% CI, 18.9-44.5) achieved SCROT at W24, and 25/48 (52.1%; 95% CI, 37.2-66.7) achieved respectively SROT and 14/48 (29.2%; 95% CI, 17.2-42.3) SCROT at W52. No severe bleeding episode occurred in patients who relapsed. Among patients re-challenged with TPO-RA, 11/12 achieved CR. We found no significant clinical predictors of SROT at W24. Single-cell RNA-seq revealed enrichment of a "TNFα signaling via NF-κB" signature in CD8+ T cells of patients with no sustained response after TPO-RA discontinuation, which was further confirmed by a significant overexpression of CD69 on CD8+ T cells at baseline in these patients as compared with those achieving SCROT/SROT. Our results strongly support a strategy based of progressive tapering and discontinuation of TPO-RAs for patients with chronic ITP who achieved a stable CR on treatment. Clinical trial number: NCT03119974.