Minerals play a key role in the regulation of metabolic and physiological pathways. Adequate intake is required to maintain homeostasis, cell protection, functionality, and health, while deficiencies are associated with specific illnesses. Among the minerals, calcium, copper, iron, selenium, and zinc are considered especially important because of their physiological roles and their participation in a variety of biological processes. Also, these elements are associated with genetic diseases and are known to interact with genetic variants in a wide range of diseases.