Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant brain tumor that mainly affects children. It is rarely found in adults. Among the four groups of MB defined today according to molecular characteristics, group 3 is the least favorable with an overall survival rate of 50 %. Current treatments, based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, are not sufficiently adapted to the different characteristics of the four MB groups. However, the use of new cellular and animal models has opened new doors to interesting therapeutic avenues. In this review, we detail recent advances in MB research, with a focus on the genes and pathways that drive tumorigenesis, with particular emphasis on the animal models that have been developed to study tumor biology, as well as advances in new targeted therapies.