Epigenetic regulations, that comprise histone modifications and DNA methylation, are essential to processes as diverse as development and cancer. Among the histone post-translational modifications, lysine methylation represents one of the most important dynamic marks. Here, we focused on methyltransferases of the nuclear binding SET domain 1 (NSD) family, that catalyze the mono- and di-methylation of histone H3 lysine 36. We review the loss of function mutations of in humans that are the main cause of SOTOS syndrome, a disease associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. We then report the role of NSD1 in triggering tumor suppressive or promoter functions according to the tissue context and we discuss the role of NSD1 in melanoma. Finally, we examine the ongoing efforts to target NSD1 signaling in cancers.