Hypoxia plays a major role in the physiology of hematopoietic and immune niches. Important clues from works in mouse have paved the way to investigate the role of low O levels in hematopoiesis. However, whether hypoxia impacts the initial steps of human lymphopoiesis remains unexplored. Here, we show that hypoxia regulates cellular and metabolic profiles of umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells. Hypoxia more specifically enhances in vitro lymphoid differentiation potentials of lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs) and pro-T/natural killer (NK) cells and in vivo B cell potential of LMPPs. In accordance, hypoxia exacerbates the lymphoid gene expression profile through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α (for LMPPs) and HIF-2α (for pro-T/NK). Moreover, loss of HIF-1/2α expression seriously impedes NK and B cell production from LMPPs and pro-T/NK. Our study describes how hypoxia contributes to the lymphoid development of human progenitors and reveals the implication of the HIF pathway in LMPPs and pro-T/NK-cell lymphoid identities.