Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy represents the most advanced immunotherapy against relapsed/refractory B cell malignancies. While cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome are distinctive, known CAR T-cell acute adverse events, hematological toxicity has been increasingly reported. Cytopenia following CAR T-cell treatment is attributed in most cases to lymphodepletion regimens, bridging chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. However, when cytopenia becomes prolonged, the development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) should be considered.