Studies carried out in the last ten years have shown that the metabolites made up from the gut microbiota are essential for multiple functions, such as the correct development of the immune system of newborns, interception of pathogens, and nutritional enrichment of the diet. Therefore, it is not surprising that alteration of the gut microbiota is the starting point of gastrointestinal infection, obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Diet changes and antibiotics are the major factors damaging the gut microbiota. Early exposure of the newborns to antibiotics may prevent their correct development of the immune system, exposing them to pathogen infections, allergies, and chronic inflammatory diseases. We already know much on how host genes, microbiota, and the environment interact, owing to experiments in several model animals, especially in mice; advances in molecular technology; microbiota transplantation; and comparative metagenomic analysis. However, much more remains to be known. Longitudinal studies on patients undergoing to therapy, along with the identification of bacteria prevalent in responding patients may provide valuable data for improving therapies.