This study was directed to characterize the role of glutamine in the modulation of the response of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells to low oxygen, a main condition of hematopoietic stem cell niches of bone marrow. Cells were incubated in atmosphere at 0.2% oxygen in the absence or the presence of glutamine. The absence of glutamine markedly delayed glucose consumption, which had previously been shown to drive the suppression of BCR/Abl oncoprotein (but not of the fusion oncogene /) in low oxygen. Glutamine availability thus emerged as a key regulator of the balance between the pools of BCR/Abl protein-expressing and -negative CML cells endowed with stem/progenitor cell potential and capable to stand extremely low oxygen. These findings were confirmed by the effects of the inhibitors of glucose or glutamine metabolism. The BCR/Abl-negative cell phenotype is the best candidate to sustain the treatment-resistant minimal residual disease (MRD) of CML because these cells are devoid of the molecular target of the BCR/Abl-active tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) used for CML therapy. Therefore, the treatments capable of interfering with glutamine action may result in the reduction in the BCR/Abl-negative cell subset sustaining MRD and in the concomitant rescue of the TKi sensitivity of CML stem cell potential. The data obtained with glutaminase inhibitors seem to confirm this perspective.