Exposure to the Mus m 1 aeroallergen is a significant risk factor for laboratory animal allergy. This allergen, primarily expressed in mouse urine where it is characterized by a marked and dynamic polymorphism, is also present in epithelium and dander. Considering the relevance of sequence/structure assessment in protein antigenic reactivity, we compared the sequence of the variant Mus m 1.0102 to other members of the Mus m 1 allergen, and used Discotope 2.0 to predict conformational epitopes based on its 3D-structure. Conventional diagnosis of mouse allergy is based on serum IgE testing, using an epithelial extract as the antigen source. Given the heterogeneous and variable composition of extracts, we developed an indirect ELISA assay based on the recombinant component Mus m 1.0102. The assay performed with adequate precision and reasonable diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.87) compared to a routine clinical diagnostic test that exploits the native allergen. Recombinant Mus m 1.0102 turned out to be a valuable tool to study the fine epitope mapping of specific IgE reactivity to the major allergen responsible for mouse allergy. We believe that advancing in its functional characterization will lead to the standardization of murine lipocalins and to the development of allergen-specific immunotherapy.