The explosive increase in the worldwide prevalence of diabetes over recent years has transformed the disease into a major public health concern. While diabetes can be screened for and diagnosed by reliable biological tests based on blood glucose levels, by and large there are no means of detecting at-risk patients or of following diabetic complications. The recent discovery that microRNAs are not only chief intracellular players in many biological processes, including insulin secretion and action, but are also circulating, has put them in the limelight as possible biological markers. Here we discuss the potential role of circulating microRNAs as biomarkers in the context of diabetes and its associated complications.