Circulating monocytes are recruited in damaged tissues to generate macrophages that modulate disease progression. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) promotes the generation of monocyte-derived macrophages, which involves caspase activation. Here, we demonstrate that activated caspase-3 and caspase-7 are located to the vicinity of the mitochondria in CSF1-treated human monocytes. Active caspase-7 cleaves p47 at aspartate 34, which promotes the formation of the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase complex NOX2 and the production of cytosolic superoxide anions. Monocyte response to CSF-1 is altered in patients with a chronic granulomatous disease, which are constitutively defective in NOX2. Both caspase-7 down-regulation and radical oxygen species scavenging decrease the migration of CSF-1-induced macrophages. Inhibition or deletion of caspases prevents the development of lung fibrosis in mice exposed to bleomycin. Altogether, a non-conventional pathway that involves caspases and activates NOX2 is involved in CSF1-driven monocyte differentiation and could be therapeutically targeted to modulate macrophage polarization in damaged tissues.