Bacillus cereus group species are widespread, Gram-positive, spore-forming environmental bacteria. B. cereus sensu stricto is one of the major causes of food poisoning worldwide. In high-risk individuals, such as preterm neonates, B. cereus infections can cause fatal infections. It is important to note that the phenotypic identification methods commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories make no distinction between B. cereus sensu stricto and the other members of the group (Bacillus anthracis excluded). As a result, all the invasive infections attributed to B. cereus are not necessarily due to B. cereus sensu stricto but likely to other closely related species of the B. cereus group. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) should be used to characterize the whole genome of the strains belonging to the B. cereus group. This could confirm whether the strains involved in previously reported B. cereus invasive infections preferentially belong to formerly known or emerging individual species. Moreover, infections related to B. cereus group species have probably been overlooked, since their isolation in human bacteriological samples has for a long time been regarded as an environmental contaminant of the cultures. Recent studies have questioned the emergence or reemergence of B. cereus invasive infections in preterm infants. This review reports our current understanding of B. cereus infections in neonates, including taxonomical updates, microbiological characteristics, bacterial identification, clinical features, host-pathogen interactions, environmental sources of contamination, and antimicrobial resistance.