The decrease in the regulatory T cells (Tregs) population is highly involved in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. Tregs depend on fatty acids via β-oxidation for immunosuppressive function adapting their antioxidant systems to allow survival to oxidative stress. In this study, we have hypothesized that a dietary supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), a powerful antioxidant, would improve immunometabolism when added to the classical strategy of obesity treatment. First, we showed by in vitro experiments that ALA favors the polarization of mice CD4 + T cells toward Tregs. Next, we have carried out a translational study where female obese mice and women were supplemented with ALA or vehicle/placebo (mice: 2.5 g /kg ; 6 weeks women: 600 mg /day, 8 weeks) while following a protocol including regular exercise and a change in diet. Fatty acid oxidation potential and activity of nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (NRF2) of mouse secondary lymphoid tissues were improved by ALA supplementation. ALA reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass and preserved Tregs in VAT in mice. In women, ALA supplementation induced significant metabolic changes of circulating CD4 + T cells including increased oxidative capacity and fatty acid oxidation, ameliorated their redox status, and improved the reduction of visceral fat mass. While appropriate biological markers are still required to be used in clinics to judge the effectiveness of long-term obesity treatment, further studies in female mice and women are needed to determine whether these immunometabolic changes would reduce VAT mass-associated risk for secondary health issues arising from obesity.