Folliculogenesis requires communication between granulosa cells and oocytes, mediated by connexin-based gap junctions. Connexin 37 (Cx37)-deficient female mice are infertile. The present study assessed Cx37 deficiency in patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). A candidate gene study was performed in patients and controls from the National Genotyping Center (Evry, France) including 58 Caucasian patients with idiopathic isolated POI and 142 Caucasian controls. Direct genomic sequencing of the coding regions of the GJA4 gene (encoding Cx37) was performed with the aim to identify a deleterious variant associated with POI and absent in ethnically matched controls. A single Cx37 variant absent in the control population was identified, namely a c.946G>A heterozygous substitution leading to a p.Gly316Ser variant that was present in two POI patients. This variant was absent in all Caucasian controls from various databases, and has been observed exclusively in African populations. This variant was identified to have a dominant negative effect in HeLa cells in vitro to alter connexon function (by 67.2±7.17%), as determined by Gap-fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The alteration principally resulted from a decrease of cell surface connexons due to altered trafficking (by 47.73±8.59%). In marked contrast to this observation, a p.Pro258Ser variant frequent in all ethnic populations in databases had no functional effect in vitro. In conclusion, the present study reported on a Cx37 variant in two Caucasian POI patients, which was absent in control Caucasian populations, and which had a deleterious effect in vitro. It is therefore suggested that in the genetic context of the Caucasian population, this variant may contribute to POI.