Metabolic stresses alter the signaling and actions of insulin in adipocytes during obesity, but the molecular links remain incompletely understood. Members of the microRNA-34 (miR-34 family play a pivotal role in stress response, and previous studies showed an upregulation of miR-34a in adipose tissue during obesity. Here, we identified miR-34a as a new mediator of adipocyte insulin resistance. We confirmed the upregulation of miR-34a in adipose tissues of obese mice, which was observed in the adipocyte fraction exclusively. Overexpression of miR-34a in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or in fat pads of lean mice markedly reduced Akt activation by insulin and the insulin-induced glucose transport. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of VAMP2, a target of miR-34a, and an increased expression of the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B. Importantly, PTP1B silencing prevented the inhibitory effect of miR-34a on insulin signaling. Mechanistically, miR-34a decreased the NAD level through inhibition of and , resulting in an inhibition of Sirtuin-1, which promoted an upregulation of PTP1B. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of and was decreased in adipose tissue of obese mice. Collectively, our results identify miR-34a as a new inhibitor of insulin signaling in adipocytes, providing a potential pathway to target to fight insulin resistance.