Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are associated with changes in the sputum microbiome, including an increased prevalence of pathogenic bacteria. Vaccination against the most frequent bacteria identified in AECOPD might reduce exacerbation frequency. We assessed the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a candidate vaccine containing surface proteins from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) in patients with COPD.