Intensive use of radio-chemotherapy has greatly improved the prognosis associated with cancer in young girl or women patients. However, improvement of the vital prognosis is frequently associated with impairment of fertility and premature ovarian failure. In vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an available method, which needs a partner and a pretreatment stimulation. Ovarian and oocyte cryopreservation are techniques showing great promise. However, the nec plus ultra would be to be able to protect ovaries during chemotherapy. Since more than 10 years Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues have been investigated as possible means to preserve fertility in young women. However, even recent prospective, randomized studies do not demonstrate clearly their effectiveness. To prevent primordial follicle apoptosis, an inhibitor of tysosine kinase, imatinib, has recently been proposed and positively evaluated in mice. It could represent an interesting hope to preserve female fertility during chemotherapy.