The global prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic status, presenting a heavy burden on society. It is therefore essential to find novel mechanisms and targets that could be utilized in potential treatment strategies and, as such, intracellular membrane trafficking has re-emerged as a regulatory tool for controlling metabolic homeostasis. Membrane trafficking is an essential physiological process that is responsible for the sorting and distribution of signalling receptors, membrane transporters and hormones or other ligands between different intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane. Dysregulation of intracellular transport is associated with many human diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration, immune deficiencies and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications. This Review focuses on the latest advances on the role of endosomal membrane trafficking in metabolic physiology and pathology in vivo, highlighting the importance of this research field in targeting metabolic diseases.