Cardiopulmonary complications are the leading cause of mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) requiring an early identification. A global and comprehensive approach is needed due to the complexity of the overlapping aetiologies of dyspnoea in SSc. Through its integrative approach of ventilatory, metabolic, cardiovascular, skeletal muscular and gas exchange findings, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been known to identify and sort competing mechanisms of exercise limitation in scleroderma patients presenting with dyspnoea. CPET may be used to screen for pulmonary arterial hypertension, suspect interstitial lung disease and guide therapeutic strategies including exercise rehabilitation. This review focuses on the clinical value of CPET in the decision-making processes for a more personalised diagnostic approach to SSc-related complications.