Increasing evidence points towards the existence of a bidirectional interconnection between metabolic disease and neurodegenerative disorders, in which inflammation is linking both together. Activation of members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family has been shown to have beneficial effects in these interlinked pathologies, and these improvements are often attributed to anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR activation. In this review, we summarize the role of PPARs in immune cell function, with a focus on macrophages and T cells, and how this was shown to contribute to obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders. We address gender differences as a potential explanation in observed contradictory results, and we highlight PPAR-induced metabolic changes as a potential mechanism of regulation of immune cell function through these nuclear receptors. Together, immune cell-specific activation of PPARs present a promising therapeutic approach to treat both metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases.