Despite therapeutic progress, 10 to 30% of adult patients with primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBCL) are primary refractory or experience early relapse (R/R). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) thus remains a potentially curative option in this setting. In this multicenter retrospective study, the outcomes of 33 French and Belgian adult patients allo-transplanted for R/R PMBCL between January 1999 and December 2018, were examined. At allo-HSCT time, patients had received a median of 3 treatment lines, 50% of them were in complete response, 40% in partial response and 10% had a progressive disease. Forty-two percent of the donors were siblings and 39% matched related. The median follow-up for alive patients was 78 months (3.5-157). Considering the whole cohort, 2-year overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 48% (95%CI: 33-70), 47% (95%CI: 33-68) and 38.5% (95%CI: 25-60) respectively. Cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality rates were respectively 34% (95%CI: 18-50) and 18% (95%CI: 7-34). Disease status at transplant was the only factor predicting survivals, patients with progressive disease showing significant lower 2-year PFS (HR: 6.12, 95%CI: 1.32-28.31, = 0.02) and OS (HR: 7.04, 95%CI: 1.52-32.75, = 0.013). A plateau was observed for OS and PFS after 4 years with 10 patients alive after this date, suggesting that almost one third of the patients effectively salvaged and undergoing allo-SCT could be cured. This study indicates that allo-HSCT is a valid therapeutic option for R/R PMBCL, providing durable remissions.