Testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is the most frequent cancer of the young male, with an increasing incidence worldwide. The pathogenesis and reasons for this increase remain unknown. However, epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that, similar to genital malformations and sperm impairment, it could result from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors including fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic effects. In this review, we analyze the expression of classic and nonclassic estrogen receptors by TGCC cells, the way they may influence germ cell proliferation induced by EDCs, and discuss how this estrogen dependency supports the developmental and environmental hypothesis.