Endocrine disruptors are natural or synthetic chemical compounds which are present in the environment and which are able to interfere with hormonal regulation pathways and to induce human health deleterious effects. While their precise implication in human health and diseases is still matter of debates, it becomes likely that they have to be considered as risk factors in numerous chronic diseases: developmental and reproductive defects and hormone dependent cancers (present review), metabolic diseases (obesity and type 2 diabetes), neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases. Low doses exposure during critical windows of exposure such as foetal, perinatal and peri-pubertal periods, or chronic exposure with bioaccumulation in the adipose tissue, and possible synergic effects of several compounds ("cocktail effect") may participate to the genetic/environment interface suspected to participate to the pathophysiology of many diseases.