Adipose tissue resides in specific depots scattered in peripheral or deeper locations all over the body and it enwraps most of the organs. This tissue is always in a dynamic evolution as it must adapt to the metabolic demand and constraints. It exhibits also endocrine functions important to regulate energy homeostasis. This complex organ is composed of depots able to produce opposite functions to monitor energy: the so called white adipose tissue acts to store energy as triglycerides preventing ectopic fat deposition while the brown adipose depots dissipate it. It is composed of many cell types. Different types of adipocytes constitute the mature cells specialized to store or burn energy. Immature adipose progenitors (AP) presenting stem cells properties contribute not only to the maintenance but also to the expansion of this tissue as observed in overweight or obese individuals. They display a high regeneration potential offering a great interest for cell therapy. In this review, we will depict the attributes of the distinct types of adipocytes and their contribution to the function and metabolic features of adipose tissue. We will examine the specific role and properties of distinct depots according to their location. We will consider their cellular heterogeneity to present an updated picture of this sophisticated tissue. We will also introduce new trends pointing out a rational targeting of adipose tissue for medical applications.