Aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening disease due to the risk of aortic rupture. The only curative treatment available relies on surgical approaches; drug-based therapies are lacking, highlighting an unmet need for clinical practice. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is frequently associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors including male sex, age, smoking, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is more often linked to genetic disorders of the extracellular matrix and the contractile apparatus but also share similar cardiovascular risk factors. Intriguingly, a large body of evidence points to an inverse association between diabetes and both AAA and TAA. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the negative association between diabetes and aortic aneurysm could help the development of innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to tackle the disease. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the relationship between glycaemic parameters, diabetes, and the development of aortic aneurysm. Cellular and molecular pathways that underlie the protective effect of diabetes itself and its treatment are reviewed and discussed, along with their potential implications for clinical translation.